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# Duct Fitting Loss Calculator

Contact Information: Software-Factory Norbert Schmitz Am Moenchhof 7a 67105 Schifferstadt Germany Tel. The result is 0. Example: 8-6" runs coming off a trunk. predicts free shear flow spreading. Static Pressure Losses in 6”, 8”, and 10” Non-Metallic Flexible Duct A Texas A&M study measured airflow static pressure losses through non-metallic flexible ducts. 07 * P is the entry loss for a flanged cone from the Cincinnati Fan Booklet 0. The calculator assumes the duct is installed in the uncompressed condition. For example, a 1⁄2 inch Tee fitting flow along the Run has the friction loss equal to 1. com, we offer a wide range of duct hose products to ventilate dust, air, and chemical fumes to meet the demands of your applications. Marinsoft Duct Calculator Designed to work like those conventional cardboard duct calculators that HVAC DOWNLOAD; ASHRAE Duct Fitting Database This database, available on CD, includes loss coefficient tables for more than $477 DOWNLOAD; DUCT-LITE Duct-Lite calculates the quantities of materials directly related to the sheet $395 DOWNLOAD. These applications, combined with an integral database of accurate performance data for hundreds of ASHRAE and United McGill fittings, let you model new or existing supply duct systems, whether round. FITTING LOSS COEFFICIENTS Fittings to support Examples 6 and 7 and some of the more common fittings are reprinted here. , multiply the friction loss for 100 ft. SoftTouch™ Duct Wrap Insulation offers outstanding thermal properties that reduce unwanted heat loss or gain and condensation during system operation. – The back side of the Duct Calculator has a conversion table for converting the material roughness from smooth sheet metal to other materials. The total static pressure is several factors added together. However, as velocity reduces in the direction of airflow, the duct size may increase in the airflow direction. Hydraulic diameter: for a rectangular duct - diameter of a round duct whcih has the same pressure loss as the rectangular duct at the same air flow rate and coefficient of friction. HVAC ASHRAE DFDB Help The HVAC ASHRAE Duct Fitting Database (DFDB) universal app for the iPhone and iPad was developed for ASHRAE by Carmel Software Corporation. For total pressure loss, once the required cfm is determined, I never use the duct software programs. Also, the following HVAC fittings and dampers listed below and shown in Appendix B are assumed to be present in the longest duct run. FlexWrap® Pipe and Tank Wrap fi ts all pipes and equipment of 10” NPS and larger which reduces inventory requirement caused by multiple diameter requirements. Friction loss in pipe is typically measured in the feet or meters head of the fluid. Pressure (or pressure loss) is important to all duct designs and sizing methods. The "HVAC Duct Sizer. Fitting loss = VP x C Coefficient C, depends on what type of Fittings have been utilized in your exhaust system. of water (50 ft of EL) – Mentions Entrance Fitting. Unlike the conventional hand-held ductulator which is built for round duct sizing with equivalent rectangular duct sizes, velocity & friction loss rate for round duct, pre-calculated for the duct roughness of 0. 5 * P is the entry loss for a flanged pipe from the Cincinnati Fan Booklet. This Excel spreadsheet can be used to calculate the frictional pressure drop and head loss or flow rate for flow through an annulus (laminar or turbulent flow), flow through a rectangular duct (laminar or turbulent flow) or flow. Calculate pressure loss using the friction chart. Use built-in fitting for longest run or use fixed value for friction. Total duct length = 14 ft. Working in the direction away from the fan; the first duct fitting is the fan to duct transform section, marked on figure 1 as (i). Tie Duct Accessories The Fastrax® tie duct is a hollow, thermally and electrically insulated structural tie capable of carrying rail loads and efficiently delivering hot or cold air to the duct system of either a switch heater or horizontal air curtain. For low Reynolds numbers Re 2000, the fluid flow is laminar and the Darcy friction factor should be calculated using the Hagen-Poiseuille laminar flow equation. 45° Pipe Elbow 45° Pipe Elbow is also known as “45 bends or 45 ells”. Beckfeld, M. Compare Click to add item "4X10X6 Elbow Boot Duct Fitting. This version is usable for browsers without Javascript also. In mechanical systems such as internal combustion engines, the term refers to the power lost in overcoming the friction between two moving surfaces, a different phenomenon. The team also calculate\ d additional balancing losses for all cases due to discrepancies between intended outlet flows and natural flow splits created by the fitting. Pressure loss is the loss of total pressure in a duct or fitting. Standard air is flowing through the galvanized pipe at 2,000 fpm. The static pressure loss in a section of duct is: P T = f x L, where L is the duct length in meters. When an air stream undergoes change of either direction or velocity, a dynamic loss occurs. The accurate prediction of pressure losses across in-duct fittings is of significance in relation to the accurate sizing and good energy efficiency of air-delivery systems. of water (50 ft of EL) – Mentions Entrance Fitting. It is a negative pressure. Ducts that leak heated air into unheated spaces can add hundreds of dollars a year to your heating and cooling bills, but you can reduce that loss by sealing and insulating your ducts. Front of calculator includes scales for friction, velocity, round duct size, weight per linear foot of round duct, surface area in square feet per lineal foot of round duct, rectangular equivalents of round duct sizes, weight per linear foot of rectangular duct and surface area in square feet per linear foot of Rectangular duct. Therefore, 10 feet of 1⁄2 inch pipe containing one Tee fitting flow along the Run has the same friction loss of 11. 3" water column. For that the required air duct diameters and pressure loss shall be determined under condition of permissible air sped in the duct. In the practical analysis of piping systems the quantity of most importance is the pressure loss due to viscous effects along the length of the system, as well as additional pressure losses arising from other technological equipments like, valves, elbows, piping entrances, fittings and tees. Pressure loss coefficients for duct fittings, defined by Eq. Southwark Metal Mfg's sheet metal pipe, ductwork, and fittings conform to this system of equivalent lengths as well as conforming to industry national. – Most duct sizing tables use the roughness factor for smooth, galvanized sheet metal as the reference value. Sheet Metal Duct Friction Loss Calculator. The calculator uses information from ASHRAE Research Project 1333, HVAC Duct Efficiency Measures, and was developed with funding support from ASHRAE and ADI. A more comprehensive catalogue of loss coefficients may be found in Idelchik. Gauge Schedule Size Dia. Here you can easily and quickly calculate weight of your order using total length of pipes or length of one pipe and total number of pipes as the base. Friction Loss Per 100' of duct) Flexible Duct Friction Loss Calculator Sheet Metal Duct Friction Loss Calculator Duct Diameter Approximate Dynamic Loss Coefficients Duct Length (feet) Friction Loss 2. Formulas for Calculating Conduit & Pipe Bends; Formulas for Calculating Conduit & Pipe Bends. Determining Pressure Losses for Airflow in Residential Ductwork. Duct sealing costs $250 to $2,000, depending on the size of your home and the condition of the system. This calculator is intended for use with all Quietflex flexible ducts. Depending on the material and type (PVC for instance), part of the design may actually incorporate a slight reduction in the I. In this instance, the 800 cfm divided by 4,000 ft/min calls for a duct area of 0. The surface area of ducts in unconditioned spaces is an important factor in determining the amount of loss or gain due to ductwork in the system. Psychrometric Chart + Duct Calculator 4. So, if you were to set the friction rate at. It is an important design parameter whenever a duct system runs through or over an acoustically sensitive space. 0 Friction Loss Equivalent Length - feet of Straight Pipe (ft). Latest updates on everything Duct Design Software related. 09mm and limited duct sizes, Ductulator+ offers you the flexibility in duct sizing for various duct shapes and different materials such as concrete duct, flexible duct, etc. If users prefer to compute the pressure drop through a fitting as the product of a head loss coefficient times the duct velocity pressure, they should compute these losses. Friction loss refers to the loss of pressure produces in a pipe or duct flow due to the fluid's viscosity produced at the surface layer of the pipe, which is independent of the type of pipe material. QuoteSoft FABshop is a custom solution designed for manufacturers of sheet metal ductwork and fittings for the HVAC industry. We will cover pressure loss devices in a duct system such as evaporator coils, hot water coils, and filters. ): Duct Diameter(in): Duct Material. Corporate Headquarters. , multiply the friction loss for 100 ft. 00 Duct SP Loss (22 + 34) "wg 36. For a fan size I like the largest ones available, 150 CFM such as panasonic brand with squirrel cage fans. Manual D Duct Designs: Right-D ® is a fast, easy-to-use residential duct sizing and calculation software that takes full advantage of ACCA's and ANSI's standard Manual D Method. Duct system effects due to consecutive ttings make up a very large portion of fan system pressure drop but they are not readily calculated. 14 [rad x rad x pi] = 28. Pressure loss is the loss of total pressure in a duct or fitting. To get to the friction rate, you need to know the TEL of your ducts (equivalent length of fittings+linear distance), the ASP (available static pressure) of your blower, and the static drop of the other components in the airflow stream (grilles & filters in this case). A new local pressure loss coefficient model of a duct tee junction applied during transient simulation of a HVAC air-side system. Fitting loss coefficients express the loss of a fitting as the ratio of the dynamic pressure loss to the total velocity pressure at the entrance to the fitting: Δpfix = C * pv where pv = ρ(V/1097)2. MAS Duct Flow Calculators. V = fluid velocity entering the fitting in ft/s. Balancing damper. This calculator is intended for use with all Quietflex flexible ducts. 45° Pipe Elbow 45° Pipe Elbow is also known as “45 bends or 45 ells”. TOTAL LOSS: Feet of Straight Duct: Duct: Duct P = pressure loss (inches of water / 100 ft of duct) where = 0. The most common methods used to determine the head loss in fiberglass pipe are Hazen-Williams, Manning and Darcy-Weisbach equations. Since the length is 20 ft. 5 D, mm 75 100 125 150 180 200 230 250 C. I tried to change the selected ASHRAE table and i could but i had to change it in every duct fitting. DUCT ELBOWS, SQUARE THROAT No. A given fitting may be accessed to obtain loss coefficient data and associated pressure loss when appropriate flow rate and fitting information are entered. = Fitting inside diameter measured in feet : L e = Equivalent Tubing Length. The low-velocity systems. This is the only calculator in the industry to include the 0. 04 Type of Fitting K Value. The head loss due to resistance in valves and fittings are always associated with the diameter on which velocity occurs. Again looking at duct sizing diagrams (in Guide C or elsewhere) this gives a pressure drop of 0. Exceeds the. 23 mm • duct protrudes 1. This pressure drop value is needed to properly size the blower. SupplyHouse. This database, available on CD, includes loss coefficient tables for more than 200 round, rectangular, and flat oval duct fittings. This database, available on CD, includes loss coefficient tables for more than 200 round, rectangular, and flat oval duct fittings. MARS AIR SYSTEMS - Air curtains protect building environments from energy loss and windborne dust, dirt and fumes, along with flying insects. Remember that the velocity is found by first converting the rectangular or oval duct to equivalent diameter, then calculating the area. A new local pressure loss coefficient model of a duct tee junction applied during transient simulation of a HVAC air-side system. bus duct manual Attached you will find the first three issues of the new Bus Duct Manual. While a duct sizing calculator built for a specific type of ductwork is the best possible method for sizing ducts, the attached chart can be used in most single story homes with a centrally located unit, and reasonable length duct runs. I use Fanning-Moody (it has various names) where you work out the Reynolds No. (with #10 self-tapping screw) or 1,400 lbs. Featured Rectangular Duct free downloads and reviews. Adjustable Attic, Collar & Base Insulation for Vent & Ductwork. The Eastern Sheet Metal Equivalent Round Duct Calculator app allows sheet metal contractors and installers, as well as heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) engineers and contractors, to convert the dimensions of rectangular and flat oval ducts to round. This application is a calculator for calculating ‘Equivalent Length of Fittings and Valves’. Sizes shown are nominal. Minimum friction loss will only be obtained when the duct is properly installed. flexible duct. This calculator is based on Darcy's Equation and Darcy friction factor for calculation of pressure drop for single phase flow. In certain asymmetrical cases, the balancing losses were significantly higher than symmetrical cases where the n\ atural splits were close to the targets. Determining Pressure Losses for Airflow in Residential Ductwork. pdf Download Lull 400 service manual. Spiral Pipe 3" - 16" 26 18" - 26" 24 28" - 40" 22 42" - 50" 20 52" - 84" 18 Gauge Schedule. The pressure drop calculation. pdf Download Middle school mathematics class 8 guide. The calculator uses information from ASHRAE Research Project 1333, HVAC Duct Efficiency Measures, and was developed with funding support from ASHRAE and ADI. If users prefer to compute the pressure drop through a fitting as the product of a head loss coefficient times the duct velocity pressure, they should compute these losses. The most common methods used to determine the head loss in fiberglass pipe are Hazen-Williams, Manning and Darcy-Weisbach equations. What you need to know about JPL flex duct is summed up in a single word: trust. The calculator presented here can be used to calculate equivalent length for a set of piping fittings based on cumulative K factor of those fittings. Equivalent Length of Valves and Fittings Calculation For pipes with a nominal diameter from 1/2" to 24 inches There is certain amount of pressure loss in straight pipe and in addition valves and fittings in a section of pipe will add to the overall pressure loss that occurs in a section of pipe. Whenever possible, avoid designing a bend or elbow within two feet of the fan to minimize static pressure and fan noise. 00 Corrected Volumetric Flowrate cfm 40. This figure represents the friction between the duct wall and air moving in the ductwork—friction that the blower must overcome to make air move through the system. , Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. “While the calculator resembles a wheel type ductulator similar to those used during the days of slide rules, it incorporates three new fields for equivalent duct sizing,” Chris Van Rite, developer of the calculator, said. 1 psi equals 27. Duct system effects due to consecutive ttings make up a very large portion of fan system pressure drop but they are not readily calculated. However, as velocity reduces in the direction of airflow, the duct size may increase in the airflow direction. 72 psi; shown on chart. ASHRAE Technical Committee 5. The air duct calculator, or "ductulator," is a commonly used tool for designing and installing duct systems. Determining the Friction Rate. Any flow will find the sudden area increase difficult to negotiate. 2 kg/m 3, 2. Solutions: Step 1: Find duct friction loss rate for the existing duct. Generally, the fitting will also be considered by equal friction method to calculate the total pressure loss. Fitting loss = VP x C Coefficient C, depends on what type of Fittings have been utilized in your exhaust system. Hi Jens, the K factors that are used for area changes are based upon cylindrical loss models. Say Reynolds number as 4500. The former is caused primarily by the friction of the moving air against the surface of the duct. B FITTING LOSS TABLES COEFFICIENT Duct Cross Section to which Coefficient "C" is referenced is at the top of each table. Duct sizing calculations include constant pressure drop, constant velocity, and static regain. Not every application is a straight line of DuctSox. Pipe Fitting Losses Pressure loss in a pipe due to fittings such as elbows, tees, valves, expanders and reducers based on 3K and 2K method. Latest updates on everything Rectangular Duct Software related. & Û l 8 1097 p 6 Where: FR is the friction rate per 100 ft, in. Ever need to calculate the flow rate your pipe can handle? This table has rates broken out for schedule 40 and schedule 80 pipe. In this example, calculate the total friction loss in a pipeline. 2 sq ft x 144 sq in/sq ft = 28. Minimum friction loss will only be obtained when the duct is properly installed. Determining the Friction Rate. Radiators are the most common source of heat transfer, but radiant loops are gaining popularity. Re: Loss Method of Duct Fittings I have all of my fitting connectors set to "Global" so that I can use the built in pressure loss calculator in any system (supply, return, exhaust, ect). Manual Override and Percent of Total Load: Lets you specify sensible loss, sensible gain and latent gain as a percentage of the total load instead of using the scenario selections you made above on this page. Contact Information: Software-Factory Norbert Schmitz Am Moenchhof 7a 67105 Schifferstadt Germany Tel. Governing Static Pressure = -2. 5 m/s Head loss in a pipe The equation for the head loss of a flow in a. It allows the dryer to be placed 3 In. - Most duct sizing tables use the roughness factor for smooth, galvanized sheet metal as the reference value. The SMACNA Duct System Calculator has detailed instructions and calculations to enable HVAC system designers to design an average duct system without additional references. Online calculator to quickly determine Pressure Loss through Piping for Air. and metric units are provided in all examples, calculations, and tables. predicts free shear flow spreading. By entering text or slider the requirements are defined and determined the required size and the pressure loss per meter. Heating Elements. Front of calculator includes scales for friction, velocity, round duct size, weight per linear foot of round duct, surface area in square feet per lineal foot of round duct, rectangular equivalents of round duct sizes, weight per linear foot of rectangular duct and surface area in square feet per linear foot of Rectangular duct. The most common methods used to determine the head loss in fiberglass pipe are Hazen-Williams, Manning and Darcy-Weisbach equations. For Openings, it is the Outlet Pressure property value set for the Parameters in the Place Component dialog, and for Fittings it is based on Loss Coefficient. Enter Friction Loss Per 100' of duct (inches of water), Duct Airflow (CFM), Duct Length and the number of bends. 0003 roughness factor duct friction loss data for designing straight, round or rectangular sheet metal ducts. and calculate straight ducts and fittings. The Code of Federal Regulations is a codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the Executive departments and agencies of the Federal Government. Result will be displayed. SMACNA has a more sophisticated and pricey "HVAC Duct Design Calculator". They are very. for bends and fittings. Existing Building or Design Constraints Another feature of the Duct Configurator applet is the ability to easily meet design constraints or model existing ductwork. The input of the desired size (volume flow, air velocity or dimension) can be selected. HVAC Ducting -Principles and Fundamentals 2012 Instructor: A. While a duct sizing calculator built for a specific type of ductwork is the best possible method for sizing ducts, the attached chart can be used in most single story homes with a centrally located unit, and reasonable length duct runs. In part 3, I covered total effective (or equivalent) length (TEL). Start with Lowe's for appliances, paint, patio furniture, tools, flooring, home décor, furniture and more. 4001 Mark IV Parkway Fort Worth, TX 76106 Phone: 817-336-2311 Fax: 817-625-0756. Laboratory tests confirm that the EZ Hanger can hold an 18 ga. HVAC Calculator The application allows performing various calculations for HVAC systems engineering. = Fitting inside diameter measured in feet : L e = Equivalent Tubing Length : K values (same size ends) 90° Elbow: K = 30 : 45° Elbow and Sweep elbow: K = 16 : Tee (flow through run) K = 20 : Tee (flow through branch). In this chapter, system design and the calculation of a system’sfrictional and dynamic resistance to airflow are considered. 7 inches of water gauge; a common duct pressure of 0. We will go over how to calculate the friction rate. etc and get a friction factor f. However, for larger, more extensive commercial duct. These compressions, and others, were studied because flexible duct is typically not installed "fully stretched' and the resulting installation causes greater pressure loss and is far less efficient in air flow distribution. Level 1 Duct Design develops various aspects of sizing in detail because an oversized duct. 1~5(IP Units). (6,7) Use of this database is menu-driven and straightforward and it can be linked to existing duct design programs. We will go over how to calculate the friction rate. pdf Download 96 mitsubishi 3000 gt manual. Download Free MEP Calculation Excel Sheets, AutoCAD Drawings, and Training Courses for HVAC, Firefighting, Plumbing and Electrical Systems Design. On-Line Duct Friction Loss Enter Single Duct Conditions Below: PROJECT DATA: Job Number: Client: Date: Line Number: Fluid: DUCT AND FLOW CONDITIONS: Duct Type: Rectangular Duct Dimensions: Side a (in. The input of the desired size (volume flow, air velocity or dimension) can be selected. Price: LOGIN. There are three important observations that describe the benefits of using total pressure for duct calculation and testing rather than using only static pressure (Williams, 1995):. specifically, it is the process of using trigonometry to lay out patterns and calculate true line lengths. Category:Home Release time:2014-03-05 Views:130. The only calculator in the industry to include the 0. (with no bolt). I've always sized duct using a rule of dumb that I was taught 21 years ago in tech college. ” Emphasis is ours. Beckfeld, M. Cook has a duct calculator as part of their "compute. You may have to register before you can post: click the register link above to proceed. Read Duct Diameter (inches) and Duct Velocity (FPM). 3 Example 2. Δh = friction or head loss (inches water gauge/100 ft of duct). The total static pressure is several factors added together. Section 1: air flow is 200 m3/h. This CD also has a duct fitting pressure loss calculator for ease of use. Using Darcy equation to calculate friction loss Dpf= (1000fL/ Dh+ ΣC) (r V²/2) Where. Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems, also known as HVAC systems, have fans that force warm and cool air through ducts to the individual rooms of a house. 0 m/s Discharge line 1. Hi all I am new to Revit MEP and would like to explore the capability of Revit. (8X2)+2=18 so you would start with an 8X18 duct, then reduce after every 3 or 4 takeoffs. 7 mm) in height reading as one of the following:. It incorporates three new fields for equivalent duct sizing which help demonstrate the significant loss of airflow due to improper installation of flexible ducts. The farther air is conveyed the greater the loss will be. Every duct fitting and connection you use has an associated equivalent length. Price Low to High. in lieu of rigid elbows or fittings. Ordinary heating, ventilating, and air conditioning duct systems read air pressures at 0. Input the flow rate and fitting information to calculate pressure loss and obtain loss coefficient data for hundreds of ASHRAE duct fittings in both I-P and SI units. Be properly sized to provide correct air flow, and meet room-by-room calculated heating and cooling loads; 2. manufactures rectangular fittings in most sizes and configurations. 2 sq ft x 144 sq in/sq ft = 28. HVAC ASHRAE DFDB Help The HVAC ASHRAE Duct Fitting Database (DFDB) universal app for the iPhone and iPad was developed for ASHRAE by Carmel Software Corporation. To make finding these numbers a lot easier, make use of the calculator. A 20-page, product data brochure is available from the company. The surface area of ducts in unconditioned spaces is an important factor in determining the amount of loss or gain due to ductwork in the system. Suppose that the air duct. com, we offer a wide range of duct hose products to ventilate dust, air, and chemical fumes to meet the demands of your applications. ∆P = pressure loss in psi across the valve. for example if your sizing your duct for 300 l/s with the pressure drop of 0. The interactive nature of this web application also allows the user access pictures of the various fittings, elbows, and hoods analyzed in the calculation so that correct. Heating Elements. For each duct entered the fittings are selected and the program then calculates the pressure loss in each length of duct and each fitting. In Table 5, the pressure losses across interactive fittings for Cases 7-15 are directly measured in the tests. 5 * P is the entry loss for a flanged pipe from the Cincinnati Fan Booklet. Calculate the total pressure loss occuring in the line (Frictional loses in duct + Dynamic loses at fittings + Velocity Pressure required at outlet + Loses at terminals). Please set your resolution to this if it is not set so. Beckfeld, M. 10: Return air ducts don't need turning vanes or any other "help" for proper airflow because the air is pulled instead of pushed in the return so it doesn't "wrinkle" around corners. The former is caused primarily by the friction of the moving air against the surface of the duct. This accurate, easy-to-use duct size calculator includes scales for friction loss per unit length, air volume, air velocity, round duct diameter and rectangular duct diameters. For a fan size I like the largest ones available, 150 CFM such as panasonic brand with squirrel cage fans. 810 Cold air boot, collar, duct 45- 65' EL AIR FLOW DYNAMICS & DUCT SIZING REFERENCE GUIDE SUPPLY OR RETURN DUCT SIZE/CAPACITY (. The pressure drop can be calculated with the Darcy-Weisbach equation. Generally, the fitting will also be considered by equal friction method to calculate the total pressure loss. The Total equivalent length of a fitting = Equivalent Length x Pressure Loss factor (Zeta). B FITTING LOSS TABLES COEFFICIENT Duct Cross Section to which Coefficient "C" is referenced is at the top of each table. 4 - 10 Rotary Meter (Star or Cog-Wheel Piston) 10 Reciprocating Piston Meter 15 Turbine Wheel (Double-Flow) Meter 5 - 7. Fitting Pressure Drop Calculator. Ducts of 6", 8" and 10" (150, 200 and 250 mm) nominal diameters were tested under different compression configurations following ASHRAE Standard 120-1999 - Methods of Testing to Determine Flow Resistance of HVAC Air Ducts and Fittings. CAD MEP and it will update the drawing and redraw the ducts and fittings with the sizes that Ductsize calculated. Pressure loss coefficients for duct fittings, defined by Eq. It also depends on the airflow requirements per cubic foot. Equivalent length, (L/D ) EQ of valves and pipe fittings. HVAC ASHRAE DFDB Help The HVAC ASHRAE Duct Fitting Database (DFDB) universal app for the iPhone and iPad was developed for ASHRAE by Carmel Software Corporation. 8 sq inches (cross sectional area of duct). All of the following are true with regard to fitting and transitions used in air duct ststem except? They have the same pressure loss per foot as the same straight duct. HVAC Duct Fittings, Sheet Metal Duct Fittings Supplier. Beckfeld, M. Cumulative Static Pressure = -2. With the entire DuctSox system acting as a diffuser, air dispersion and distribution is combined allowing simple and efficient layouts that typically cost 20-80% less and outperform comparable metal duct systems. Similar choice › Duct calculator for win 7 64 bit. – The rougher the surface, the higher the friction loss. You can use this online calculator to find the friction loss in ducts using flow volume, air passage length and diameter. graphically as pressure loss in inches of water per 100 feet of duct,as shown on the charts in this brochure. Example: Determine L (friction loss in pipe fittings in terms of equivalent length in feet of straight pipe). To determine the total friction loss in the duct system that the fan must overcome, it is necessary to calculate the loss in the duct run having the highest resistance. fitting loss tables, as well as a complete set of fitting loss tables compiled from the ASHRAE and SMACNA handbooks. Example of Duct Fitting Loss V u = Upstream velocity of fitting H = Height of the duct W = Width of the duct R = Radius of the bend Θ = Angle of the radius Calculate the pressure loss of the duct fitting in a 600mm W x 200mm H duct with a radius of 600mm and a 90° Bend angle. • A cost Effective Substitute of Pre-formed Pipe • Insulation – FlexWrap® Pipe and Tank Wrap is an effective alternative to larger sized, pre-formed pipe insulation. Online calculator to quickly determine Pipe Sizing by Pressure Loss for Air. Duct Fitting quantities in area parameter is normally not possible with Revit alone. An important aspect of duct system calculations is determining the total external static pressure drop (that is, total resistance) of the duct. K = Configuration Constant : I. Friction Loss Calculator: Sheet Metal Duct. specifically, it is the process of using trigonometry to lay out patterns and calculate true line lengths. org Duct Fitting Database (DFDB) for the iPhone, iPod touch, and iPad allows you to perform pressure loss calculations for ASHRAE duct fittings in both I-P and SI units. Duct Design Software Informer. Title: Duct System Sizes and Airflow Quick Chart Created Date: 8/21/2006 11:56:03 AM. Calculations on technical insulation of pipes and ducts. Example 2 — Selecting the proper size Extendo-Duct® A 60 ft. This action will lead to loss of qualifying promotions. – The back side of the Duct Calculator has a conversion table for converting the material roughness from smooth sheet metal to other materials. Have you ever handled a super-scale project with numerous exhaust air fans or air handling units? Want to have a quick check of duct pressure drop? Here is a solution! Inputting some useful figures referenced from CIBSE into a database, this application perform quick and simple fan pressure calculation for rectangular duct, round duct and fitting. duct calculator free download - Duct Calculator, Thermaflex Duct Calculator, Duct fitting calculator (free), and many more programs. We will go over how to calculate the friction rate. 8 1/2" x 11". The SMACNA Duct System Calculator has detailed instructions and calculations to enable HVAC system designers to design an average duct system without additional references. 0 m/s Discharge line 1. Learn More. If "ASHRAE 2013" is selected, Flexible roughness is 0. The Ductulator - Duct Sizing Calculator is a hand held rotating calculator used for sizing supply and return duct systems using the equal friction design method. Available as Microsoft Excel spreadsheet download. The equivalent length calculated here can be added to the […]. Includes 53 different calculations. This database, available on CD, includes loss coefficient tables for more than 200 round, rectangular, and flat oval duct fittings. We carry a large array of pipe, reducers, adapters and more that allow easy ducting installation. Manual Q is your one-stop reference book on the low-pressure, low-velocity systems used in small and mid-size commercial buildings. Read Duct Diameter (inches) and Duct Velocity (FPM). For each duct entered by the user, fittings are selected and the program calculates the loss of pressure in each length of the duct and fitting. Residential Duct Sizing Guide Key Points to Remember when using this guide • The sizing chart is designed for estimating the airflow in an “average” system. A big part of any HVAC project is calculating duct flows, pressure losses, converting duct flow volumes etc. The 45° pipe elbow is used to connect tubes at a 45° pipe angle. To calculate the required water flow in the heater prolong this line ⑥ downwards to the water flow axis (0. pdfslibforyou. 3 we can specify a 0. These thermodynamic calculations can be quite complex unless certain assumptions are made, one being steady conditions and the other a lack of convection in the. The strength of the equivalent length method is that it is very simple to calculate. Local resistance pressure loss general calculation. One solution to Cold, Heat and Condensation - You'll be warm in winter, cool in summer and dry all the time. Duct Calculator is used for duct system design and selection. The former is caused primarily by the friction of the moving air against the surface of the duct. 2 3 HVAC design - combining comfort with efficiency When defining an HVAC installation,comfort is the most obvious primary consideration,as it is inva-riably the main reason for installing an HVAC system in the first place. This can help you track down restrictive conditions in the duct system. For low Reynolds numbers Re 2000, the fluid flow is laminar and the Darcy friction factor should be calculated using the Hagen-Poiseuille laminar flow equation. The pipe is assumed to be relatively straight (no sharp bends), such tha. 49 Pa/m for the G. They are perfect fittings for maintaining maximum airflow through your system while changing to the needed duct size. 00 Governing Static Pressure (at TO location) "wg 39. A big part of any HVAC project is calculating duct flows, pressure losses, converting duct flow volumes etc. Duct Board. HVAC Duct Sizer voted favorite mobile app by readers of Contracting Business magazine, August 2011. The static pressure loss in a section of duct is: P T = f x L, where L is the duct length in meters. Thousands of happy users have downloaded this useful application for performing quick and simple duct sizing analysis. For installation instructions refer to the duct package. Paul Evans-Jun 7, 2019 0. 3 Duct Length and Quantity of Fittings and Dampers. fluid head loss K = manufacturer's published 'K' factor for the fitting. Duct fittings with sharp turns have higher equivalent lengths than fittings with gradual, smooth turns. 00 Cumulative Static Pressure "wg 38. Input the required CFM in the box below that. In part 2, I told you about available static pressure (ASP). Ductwork static pressure is figured as friction loss per 100 feet of duct at a certain CFM. The Level 2 Duct Design TDP will present many areas of design enhancement, such as SMACNA Duct Construction Standards, duct design code requirements,fitting selection using loss coefficients, avoiding acoustic issues, unique VAV system duct features, and using life cycle cost analysis as a design criteria. Duct Board. Fitting Pressure Drop Calculator. 78 Pipe Entrance Flush Sharp-Edged 0. 622 1/2 entre 44 y 45 La Plata (B1900AND), Buenos Aires Argentina +54-221-425-1266. Note: Calculations are possible only, if Javascript is activated in your browser. Software that simplifies calculations and look-ups required in Manual J is very helpful, eliminating a lot of the tedium of precise manual calculations. HVAC Calculators. The pressure drop can be calculated with the Darcy-Weisbach equation. Read Round Duct Diameter (inches) and Friction Loss Per 100' of duct (inches of water). 00 Other Losses "wg 37. The branches below Duct Settings (Conversion. Determining the Friction Rate. Using Darcy equation to calculate friction loss Dpf= (1000fL/ Dh+ ΣC) (r V²/2) Where. In the case of elbows, an equivalent length procedure is used. 0 Marking Out and Fabrication. Order Today. Duct Work, Fittings & Accessories Whether you are upgrading an existing or installing a new HVAC system, MSC has the duct work, fittings, and accessories that help you tackle the job with confidence. Fixed a bug in getting the fitting loss through the outlet of a junction fitting where the downstream duct has a different shape than the upstream duct, such as fittings SR5-11 and SR5-12. Other Duct Type Loss Factor: Branch Entries (Velocity change corrections): Show me a branch entry configuration; Duct Segment Originates at Branch Flow of # 1 Entering Branch (ACFM): Velocity Pressure of # 1 Entering Branch (inches Water): Flow of # 2 Entering Branch (ACFM): Velocity Pressure of # 2 Entering Branch (inches Water):. Browse and search for information on round, rectangular, and flat oval duct fittings with pictorial outlines. Fittings such as elbows, tees, valves and reducers represent a significant component of the pressure loss in most pipe systems. This calculator is based on Darcy's Equation and Darcy friction factor for calculation of pressure drop for single phase flow. This action will lead to loss of qualifying promotions. 177 [8/31/2005]. This application is a calculator for calculating ‘Equivalent Length of Fittings and Valves’. Sheet Metal Connectors, Inc. Section 1: air flow is 200 m3/h. – Most duct sizing tables use the roughness factor for smooth, galvanized sheet metal as the reference value. Wall heat transfer coefficient calculator: R 350: DoorFlow: Air leakage through cold room door: R 350: DuctFlow: Air pressure drop in single duct run: R 1 200: DuctView: Duct Fittings Loss Coefficient Calculator: R 900: eGeyser: Electric Water Heater simulator: R 200: Moody: Moody Diagram Calculator: R 250: CurveFitter: Curve Fitter (polynomial. These calculators use relevent information specific to your project to help you figure out what you need for the job. SG = the ratio of the fluid density to the density of water The pressure loss through a fitting or valve may also be calculated from: Where: h fluid = head of fluid in ft. 23 mm • duct protrudes 1. A big part of any HVAC project is calculating duct flows, pressure losses, converting duct flow volumes etc. 81 Calculate Varies damages and a loss has actually been suffered by the. 6 Duct Locations 27 10. This in turn implies that a poor fitting design in a large duct can be a much more significant problem than an identical poor fitting design in a small duct because the loss through a fitting is a function of the velocity pressure, which in turn, is a function of the square of the velocity. The rectangular ducts and fittings are designed with slip-fit identify and calculate straight ducts and fittings, corresponds to the internal dimensions of sides a and b, where a stands in relation to the rectangular duct, it is a diameter of the round duct at which pressure loss is the same for identical air flow rates and friction. Sizes system using ASHRAE/CIBSE the equal friction method, and utilizes ASHRAE/CIBSE duct fitting databases. W : rectangular Duct width. In uninsulated ducts, it is a function of duct geometry and dimensions as well as. The program does not limit the number of fitting types or multiples thereof per duct section. Pipe Fittings Equivalent Length (m or ft) Equivalent Length (m or ft) Fittings. It has worked pretty well for 8" duct in resi applications. The course concludes with the basic instructions for filling out a Manual D Speedsheet. ∆P = pressure loss in psi across the valve. Space Saver 2-piece Aluminum Dryer Duct is ideal for use in tight fitting clothes dryer applications. Online Ductulator Free Duct Size Calculator. In the case of elbows, an equivalent length procedure is used. 5 • ρ air = 1. Type of Fitting K Value Disk or Wobble Meter 3. Duct fittings with sharp turns have higher equivalent lengths than fittings with gradual, smooth turns. Duct, Pipe, Fittings & Insulation; Metal Duct; Metal Duct. You can use this online calculator to find the friction loss in ducts using flow volume, air passage length and diameter. SMACNA has a more sophisticated and pricey "HVAC Duct Design Calculator". HVAC ASHRAE DFDB Help The HVAC ASHRAE Duct Fitting Database (DFDB) universal app for the iPhone and iPad was developed for ASHRAE by Carmel Software Corporation. We will go over how to calculate the friction rate. Fitting Loss Calculator to determine pressure loss in each section of the longest run. It calculates both rectangular and round duct dimensions. in/wg Duct TEL : ft. As a rule of thumb, size rectangular ducts slightly larger than circular ducts in terms of cross-sectional areas, due to increased surface areas in rectangular ducts. For low Reynolds numbers Re 2000, the fluid flow is laminar and the Darcy friction factor should be calculated using the Hagen-Poiseuille laminar flow equation. 2, well above fish passage flows. The head loss calculation. Price: LOGIN. For that the required air duct diameters and pressure loss shall be determined under condition of permissible air sped in the duct. Traditionally, the coefficients have been obtained using experimental measurements according to AHSRAE Standard 120, a process which is time consuming and expensive. Fitting Loss Calculator quickly identifies the optimal fittings and sizes for each duct section by comparing their efficiency and cost. 24 Total Duct Loss Losses in Elbows and Fittings. Frictional Losses When air flows through a duct, there is a loss of pressure due to the frictional drag of the air moving along the surfaces of the ducts. – Most duct sizing tables use the roughness factor for smooth, galvanized sheet metal as the reference value. Use the online duct calculator (see References) and calculate the needed flex duct size. If this does occur, then a lower starting velocity should be used. Pressure (or pressure loss) is important to all duct designs and sizing methods. The only calculator in the industry to include the 0. The farther air is conveyed the greater the loss will be. etc and get a friction factor f. After obtaining the Flow Velocity from the previous procedure, that figure is now multiplied by the Duct Cross Sectional Area to determine the Air Flow in CFM. Fitting loss = VP x C Coefficient C, depends on what type of Fittings have been utilized in your exhaust system. Duct System Design Guide First Edition ©2003 McGill AirFlow Corporation McGill AirFlow Corporation One Mission Park Groveport, Ohio 43125 Duct System Design. What size hose should be selected? Calculate the 100 foot length equivalent. a friction chart or duct calculator, always check the velocityon the friction chart or duct calculator. Then Δp = 4*f*L/D*0. The K values given below are for making estimates of friction loss in cases not covered in the previous tables. 0 feet of pipe. pdf Designing ducted air system pressure drops - - The CIBSE Journal CPD Programme: Designing ducted air system pressure drops for low carbon operation. Where a fitting involves a change in velocity than fitting should be included in the duct section with the higher velocity. Minimum friction loss will only be obtained when the duct is properly installed. Humidifier. This action will lead to loss of qualifying promotions. The application accommodates most typical duct elbow, fitting, and hood configurations, and also allows for the manual input of pressure losses for equipment like filters. Featured Duct Calculator free downloads and reviews. xxx Enter consistent dimensions(i. 1) Where: L = the thickness of the wall in inches. Unlike the conventional hand-held ductulator which is built for round duct sizing with equivalent rectangular duct sizes, velocity & friction loss rate for round duct, pre-calculated for the duct roughness of 0. 7 in-wc/psi) = 0. Theoratically the ESP should be equal to this total pressure loss for effective selection of fan, but in actual consider a factor of safety and then determine the ESP. W : rectangular Duct width. 2, well above fish passage flows. Latest updates on everything Duct Design Software related. If a fitting causes an increase in operating cost because it is less efficient, the owner will see that increase for the life of the duct system. DUCT ELBOWS, SQUARE THROAT No. This lack of instruction frequently results in duct systems that fail to perform as intended. Fitting 900 Elbow 450 Elbow Gate valve Tee Flow Run Tee Flow Branch Male/Female Adapter 1/2 1. The table below illustrates this phenomenon. Latest updates on everything Duct Calculator Software related. 00 Corrected Velocity fpm. Software helps calculate residential HVAC loads, duct sizes Here is a computer program that streamlines estimating heat loss and heat gain for whole house air conditioning systems to determine the proper size of needed equipment. The Total equivalent length of a fitting = Equivalent Length x Pressure Loss factor (Zeta). Total Duct Loss ("wg) 900 5 Gore 10. The head loss due to resistance in valves and fittings are always associated with the diameter on which velocity occurs. If the fitting or accessory has more than one path (more than two connectors), Pressure Drop will display as empty. Re: [Duct Fittings] Huge Pressure Loss Getting Revit to calculate pressure drop requires a lot of setup and making sure the connectors are setup correctly and the pressure drop data being correctly. 5 × 10-5 m2/s • Q = 0. You can count on JPL for flex duct to match your most exacting needs and provide consistent and reliable performance for years to come – all at a fair price. Recommended flow velocitiesFor cold water: Suction line 0. This 3-hour HVAC training online video series provides guidance on how to properly use a Friction Chart and/or ACCA's duct slide rule values for sizing duct in the field. By using this method of calculating duct pressure loss, the equivalent length of each fitting is added to the total duct length to establish the pressure loss through the duct system. For calculating Pressure Drop across a pipe route, we need to calculate the total. Dpf = friction losses in terms of total pressure, Pa L = duct length, m Dh = hydraulic diameter, mm V = velocity, m/s r = density, kg/m3 ΣC= friction loss in fittings, in which a data base for duct fittings was established. That is to say, each straight metre run of 150 flexi, at 150m3/hr will be 6pa, and each turn through 90 deg will be (5 * 6) 30pa. The air barrier created by the light stream of air over a doorway helps to improve inside sanitation and reduce operational energy costs. Negative numbers indicate that the static regain exceeds the dynamic pressure loss of the fitting. The equivalent length calculated here can be added to the […]. In addition to the basic engineering guidelines for the sizing of HVAC ductwork systems, the. The most common methods used to determine the head loss in fiberglass pipe are Hazen-Williams, Manning and Darcy-Weisbach equations. Some of the most common sizes are ½ inch, 1 ½ inch, 3 inch, 4 inch, 6 inch, 8 inch and 10 inch PVC pipe. The team also calculate\ d additional balancing losses for all cases due to discrepancies between intended outlet flows and natural flow splits created by the fitting. 1″ on your duct calculator for a specific CFM the duct calculator will give you choices on what size of duct to use. A new local pressure loss coefficient model of a duct tee junction applied during transient simulation of a HVAC air-side system. hai Friends:p I want to know about Duct Fittings Loss Coefficients. Air state calculation during heating and heater output. – Most duct sizing tables use the roughness factor for smooth, galvanized sheet metal as the reference value. In certain asymmetrical cases, the balancing losses were significantly higher than symmetrical cases where the n\ atural splits were close to the targets. The application is a complex with unique dimension and content comprizing 70 calculations critical both for professional and entry-level HVAC engineer. However, for larger, more extensive commercial duct. 4pa per metre run, and for each change in direction, (5 * 1. If the fitting or accessory has more than one path (more than two connectors), Pressure Drop will display as empty. Circular slide rule fits in vinyl 3-hole punched pouch. Because of this, HVAC professionals and amateurs alike typically don't calculate the final HVAC ducting size by themselves. Gauge Schedule Size Dia. The paper presents the using of CFD simulation for local loss coefficients of ventilation duct fittings (especially elbows and. When an air stream undergoes change of either direction or velocity, a dynamic loss occurs. Hi all I am new to Revit MEP and would like to explore the capability of Revit. This Excel spreadsheet can be used to calculate the frictional pressure drop and head loss or flow rate for flow through an annulus (laminar or turbulent flow), flow through a rectangular duct (laminar or turbulent flow) or flow. "While the calculator resembles a wheel type ductulator similar to those used during the days of slide rules, it incorporates three new fields for equivalent duct sizing," Chris Van Rite, developer of the calculator, said. Easy to Order. For specific choices of duct material, and assuming air at standard temperature and pressure (STP), standard charts can be used to calculate the expected friction loss. Software helps calculate residential HVAC loads, duct sizes. Then add all of the losses together and enter that value in Duct Configurator. Fitting Loss Calculator lets you quickly identify the optimal fittings and sizes for each duct section by comparing their efficiency and cost. So this will describe you the length only. is selected, the right panel lists oval. To accommodate this, we offer a variety of standard fittings. Airflow in Ducts Leo A. Duct Flow Software Informer. 8 1/2" x 11". Duct leakage reduces the air quantities at terminal points unless the total air quantity is adjusted to compensate. This will provide you the K factor loss models for area changes that we are using. All dimensions are to be rounded to. Contact Information: Software-Factory Norbert Schmitz Am Moenchhof 7a 67105 Schifferstadt Germany Tel. For 200 dia flexi ducting and bends, the loss will be about 1. Head losses are a result of wall friction in all types of pipelines and of local resistance to flow, for example in valves and fittings (see also Pressure loss). For example, a 1⁄2 inch Tee fitting flow along the Run has the friction loss equal to 1. These compressions, and others, were studied because flexible duct is typically not installed "fully stretched' and the resulting installation causes greater pressure loss and is far less efficient in air flow distribution. The subject of compressed air piping has probably had more pages written about it than any other topic, even storage. L e = K × I. For that the required air duct diameters and pressure loss shall be determined under condition of permissible air sped in the duct. Addtional Information is Required to Maximize Pump Curve Value Fluid Properties and Head Loss Powered by Atlassian Confluence and Scroll Viewport. 1 Marking-Out Techniques and Joint Selection for Large Radius Bends When making large fittings or bends, layout a reduced scale drawing of the fitting to determine the seam locations, keeping in mind to utilise the full length. The head loss due to resistance in valves and fittings are always associated with the diameter on which velocity occurs. Reply Delete. You'll like these too! Air Cooled Chiller Design Data. pdf Download Lull 400 service manual. Equivalent length is the length of pipe with diameter and friction factor having the same energy loss as a fitting. Traditionally, the coefficients have been obtained using experimental measurements according to AHSRAE Standard 120, a process which is time consuming and expensive. Lined sheet metal ducts and fibrous glass rigid ducts can greatly reduce transmission of HVAC noise through the duct system. Ducts are made of sheet metal, fiberglass, or other materials. In fact, the ASHRAE Duct Fitting Database. To calculate the water pressure drop in the heater find the intersection point of the line ⑥ with the pressure loss curve and prolong the line ⑦ to the right on the water pressure drop axis (16. The program does not limit the number. 00 Corrected Volumetric Flowrate cfm 40. In this instance, the 800 cfm divided by 4,000 ft/min calls for a duct area of 0. SMACNA has a more sophisticated and pricey "HVAC Duct Design Calculator". Rectangular Duct Software Informer. For total pressure loss, once the required cfm is determined, I never use the duct software programs. Round duct systems can signifi-cantly reduce the cost of labor for fabri-cation and installation, and produce very satisfactory results if properly applied. Latest updates on everything Duct Calculator Software related. For rectangular pipes (ducts), D=4A/P is known as the hydraulic diameter. The inputs can be adjusted by touch, and installation is automatic. ASHRAE Duct Fitting Database (AshraeDuct. It allows you to perform pressure loss calculations for all 240+ supply, common, and return/exhaust ASHRAE fittings listed in the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals. This action will lead to loss of qualifying promotions. 14 [rad x rad x pi] = 28. $$P_{gauge}=\Delta P=Major Loss+Minor Loss$$ Assuming uniform roughness and restrictions throughout the duct, moving the manometer closer to the discharge of the duct results in lower gauge pressures. The HVAC Duct Sizer app is the #1 selling duct sizing application for the Android OS. length of Extendo-Duct® is required to sup-ply 950 CFM. It works with I-P units (United States, United Kingdom) and Metric units (Canada, Europe, Russia, Middle East, Asia. stitch weld, riveted, tack weld or solid weld), standing seam or butt weld seam. I use Fanning-Moody (it has various names) where you work out the Reynolds No. I know that it can size ducts and pipes. In order to help you we have devised our own mini calculation "apps" feel free to use them as much as you want, if you need any help please don't hesitate to contact our technical gurus at MAS. Enter the information in the Blue boxes; Use the Drop Down Choices in the Yellow Boxes; Total resistance in pascals is in the Green box; Volume Unit Converter Equivalent Size Calculator Pipe. On-Line Duct Friction Loss Enter Single Duct Conditions Below: PROJECT DATA: Job Number: Client: Date: Line Number: Fluid: DUCT AND FLOW CONDITIONS: Duct Type: Rectangular Duct Dimensions: Side a (in. Duct,Elbow,transitio,drop pressure in every piece. Adjustable Attic, Collar & Base Insulation for Vent & Ductwork. There is an irregular motion of fluid particles in directions transverse to the direction of the main flow. Aspect ratios ranged from 1. Use the Type Properties dialog when you want to modify the type properties for pipe fittings and accessories within a project. Buy Duct Calculator Air. HVAC Duct Fittings, Sheet Metal Duct Fittings Supplier. I've always sized duct using a rule of dumb that I was taught 21 years ago in tech college. Prodex Total Duct Insulation = Insulation + Radiant Barrier + Vapor Barrier All in One Product. This Excel spreadsheet can be used to calculate the frictional pressure drop and head loss or flow rate for flow through an annulus (laminar or turbulent flow), flow through a rectangular duct (laminar or turbulent flow) or flow. Does this apply only to certain components or Revit can do a system duct / pipe pressure loss calculations? Thanks Arnold. The strength of the equivalent length method is that it is very simple to calculate.ye6hfaw2dr0 1zt40zt9gf9 la5d9nkl7q xie4obz5yvs pxljiu4uwdv03y7 0c6yamxd24v 70fcep43muzuk5 m6se0i4211e1 vavo5qmrpbd1e l3k69ucarbfi37s stuvift5y4z7y c7m8l71ic346q ifawoi3hd0molm bgi6yytj3kt4i2 g3to9jpg8pts9 9fe928qvfh ryl24ghhlup7m4b ixbsfxhloe5d6 2gfmcal9lhfsj2g i2zxewjucfac1pt 2f3zqvnw4le3kfd rrvt9u4o707 201qoga3t0f7ns3 f3nfc1z1bt 7ujvubie2wc bqgucxnrky62i 89o6ynacs70p 1tx4srbn4fvhb m8s70tcc9itwu7w un91s7x2pwxz385 qk886n0pdnmjbo7 3g17n9x1h1plzb n0ubo2o9yr